Value chains

Despite emerging public and donor attention on women and agriculture, relatively few studies are based on gender analysis of sex-disaggregated quantitative data, particularly on women’s involvement in marketing of livestock products.

This article investigates gender roles and processes of smallholder goat production and marketing in Inhassoro District, Mozambique.

The paper draws on baseline data from the imGoats project, which aimed to diversify smallholder goat producers’ livelihood options by supporting the commercialization of goat production.

Building on the sustainable livelihoods framework, adapted for gender and assets, this paper demonstrates that women in male-headed households rarely have control over income from goat sales and that meanings of “joint” ownership, decision making and asset control differ by gender.

Results also showed that the primary goal of selling goats is to cover emergencies and household needs, and that goat meat consumption is linked to market access and agro-ecological zone. Despite the challenges of undertaking robust gender studies in a real-life developing country setting, this study provides a practical technical example of how one can implement gendered quantitative analyses in the context of the livelihoods framework.

Download the article: Boogaard, B.K., Waithanji, E., Poole, E.J. and Cadilhon, J.J. 2015. Smallholder goat production and marketing: A gendered baseline study from Inhassoro District Mozambique. NJAS-Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences.

Goat rearing is an enterprise that is both suitable for poor households who own little or no land, and is resilient to climate change. Goats largely browse shrubs which are more tolerant of rainfall variations than the grasses eaten more by sheep, cattle and buffalo.

The project, Small ruminant value chains as platforms for reducing poverty and increasing food security in dryland areas of India and Mozambique (imGoats), was implemented in Udaipur district in Rajasthan from 2011 to 2013. The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) partnered with BAIF Development Research Foundation, an NGO, to implement the project.

The project worked with 2,685 goat-keeper households in two blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. These were organized into 244 groups that were facilitated by 25 community based service providers called Bakri Mitra (field guides). These are local goat-keepers with some education who are trained on improved goat husbandry practices. They also are the link between the goat-keepers and the Animal Health Department staff with whom they work closely.

The biggest outcome of the project was adoption of improved practices regarding health, feed and breed management among the goat-keepers linked to improved market participation. The training of the Bakri Mitras was also an important step towards improving animal health service delivery in rural areas. Below we share the experience from a female Bakri Mitra named Roopi Bai.

The case of Roopi Bai – Bakri Mitra

Roopi Bai and Bherulal Garasiya, imgoats facilitators

Roopi Bai and Bherulal Garasiya

Roopi Bai lives in Galdhar village with her husband Bherulal Garasiya and their two sons and two daughters. She is the only woman among the 25 Bakri Mitra trained by the imGoats project. While Rajasthan is traditionally a male dominated society, Roopi Bai is able to work as a Bakri Mitra thanks to the support and encouragement of her husband. She works for 5 to 6 hours a day visiting a selection of the 40 households in Galder village. She also trained her husband to perform certain basic treatments so that he can provide the services in case she is not available. They both are knowledgeable and their skills are in demand.

While she always kept animals (as did her parents and everybody else in the village), she didn’t think that she could earn an income from her knowledge. Before training as a Bakri Mitra, she mostly spent her time at home running a small grocery shop (Kirana) and a flour mill, and also tailoring. She and her husband developed these activities step by step, learning on their own and following guidance from others such as the local teacher. Roopi Bai’s overall personality evolved over the period of the project in the following roles:

Group facilitation: Roopi Bai facilitates 4 goatkeeper groups (40 households). Her facilitation skills improved over time. Initially the group members were skeptical but after they saw her perform different activities and interact with veterinary officers, she gained their confidence.

Innovation: Roopi Bai participates in imGoats “innovation platform” meetings, and uses this as an opportunity to raise issues pertaining to her village. She helped developed and execute action plans, resulting in an expanded scope of activities of the innovation platform.

Group participation: A self-help group of Bakri Mitra was started in June 2013. The main purpose of the group is to be able to purchase veterinary drugs in larger quantities to save costs. Roopi Bai is the frontrunner in terms of the volume of medicines purchased. From December 2013 to March 2014, she purchased medicines worth Rs 2000, and also purchased an additional Rs 2000 of medicines from the local pharmacist to meet urgent requirements.

Entrepreneurship in service delivery: Roopi Bai was one of the first Bakri Mitras to start charging for her services and then convinced her colleagues to do the same. She has also expanded her services beyond her group members and is now assisting 100 households in her village.

While the amounts the Roopi Bai charges are small (Rs 15 to treat an injury, Rs 6 per animal for de-worming or vaccination), she is able to make a reasonable amount of money. She earned Rs1,000 per month for de-worming animals between September 2013 and April 2014. She also supported BAIF with PPR vaccination (the main killer disease in goats) and received Rs 2,848 for her services. Enterotoxemia (ET) vaccinations were given to about 300 animals in June 2014, giving her a net return of about Rs 1,000.

Roopi Bai receiving imgoats training materials

Roopi Bai receiving training materials


While her Bakri Mitra activities are still expanding, this still remains a secondary source of income for Roopi Bai and her husband. What is also important is her increased confidence in her interactions with people. She believes that her services are helping people to save their animals. Initially she used to go door to door to convince goat-keepers in her village to avail of her services. Now many of them bring their goats to her door-step to get them treated, especially for injuries. She feels this is a positive sign of the growing awareness of the benefits of health-care and also confidence in her ability to provide treatment.


This story was first published  by IFAD India in its November 2014 newsletter.

Story and pictures by R Bendapudi (BAIF), R.B. Patel (BAIF) and Saskia Hendrickx (ILRI)


The imGoats project (‘small ruminant value chains to increase income and food security in India and Mozambique’) was designed to increase incomes and food security in a sustainable manner by enhancing pro-poor small ruminant value chains in the two countries.

This ILRI research brief shares experiences of the project in using outcome mapping (OM) to improve planning, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of a goat value chain development project in the two countries.

Results show that OM was very useful to monitor behavioural changes among value chain actors. It also contributed to effective management of the project. The approach suited both a relatively small project area in Mozambique (>500 households), with a strong emphasis on qualitative data, as well as a larger project area in India (>2500 households) where it helped improve data collection and analysis,and stimulate feedback mechanisms.

Data collection and analysis was resource intensive, and substantial adaptations were required based on organizational culture and capacity as well as project scale.

Download the brief

It is almost a year since Kees Swaans presented this paper at an international workshop on New models for innovation for development held at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom in July 2013, but we are now pleased to share with you the open access article: Operationalizing inclusive innovation: Lessons from innovation platforms in livestock value chains in India and Mozambique.

The CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Systems contributed financially to make this an open access publication.

Citation: Swaans K, Boogaard B, Bendapudi R, Taye H, Hendrickx S and Klerkx L. 2014. Operationalizing inclusive innovation: lessons from innovation platforms in livestock value chains in India and Mozambique. Innovation and Development 4(2): 239-257.

The imGoats project team recently finalized two short photo stories about the project site in Udaipur (Rajasthan State, India) and Inhassoro (Inhambane province, Mozambique). The photo stories outline the situation before and after the project intervention regarding goat production and commercialization.

Improving livelihoods through goat rearing and commercialisation in India



Improving livelihoods through goat rearing and commercialisation in Mozambique

On 13 August 2013, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and BAIF Development Research Foundation hosted a small ruminant policy meeting at the Park Hotel in New Delhi, India. This activity was part of the imGoats project.

Over 50 participants were present, including representatives from central and state government, agricultural research institutes, development organizations and the private sector.

There were sessions on innovations and stakeholder linkages, market linkages, and service delivery and community-led extension. Each session had two presentations which were followed by lively debates from a panel of experts and the participants.

The main findings of the meeting are outlined below:

  • In India, two sectors of small ruminant production co-exist: smallholders in semi-arid and arid regions and commercial farmers. The increased demand for goat and sheep meat offers an opportunity for both sectors to grow. There is also a good opportunity to maximize the use of by-products that are currently unused for the most part.
  • Because of the diversity of these two sectors, their respective needs with regard to training and services are different, as is the case for their policy needs.
  • Of importance is the organization of smallholder producers into self-help groups that will eventually evolve into cooperatives. Other institutional models can be explored to stimulate linkages with the private sector.
  • Important measures of success include widespread adoption by smallholders of improved animal health, breeding and feeding practices, as well as improved interaction among value chain actors to enhance smallholder market participation. For the private sector, compliance with internationally recognized certification standards, such as ISO International Standards, is important to ensure high-value market participation in India and access to export markets.

On 13 June 2013, the imGoats Inhassoro innovation platform held its ninth meeting at Vulanjane, Inhassoro, Mozambique. It was the last meeting with project support.

In total 16 people participated. The meeting was facilitated by the innovation platform president Joao. It was a very good and promising meeting, in which potential goat sales and the future of the innovation platform was discussed. The innovation platform members were motivated to continue the meetings after the project, saying that they ‘can do it on their own now’.

The participants made the following agreements:

  • Two goat sales points will be created in the district: in Vulanjane and Mangugumete
  • The abattoir in Vilanculos wants to buy around 100 goats per month, on every second Wednesday of the month. The first sales will occur on the 10 July 2013. Payments will be done in cash. Innovation platform participants will inform community members. Paravets will make an inventory of the available animals in their community.
  • Next innovation platform meeting: Thursday 18 July 2013.

Due to the project’s ending, the report of the ninth IP meeting is the last report.


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